In June , eleven European manufacturers of chemical fibres signed a cartel agreement in Brussels, but it was not compatible with the Treaty of the European Economic Community. It was not until that the companies submitted a new contract to the European Commission which was in accordance with antitrust law and renewed in The article analyses the course of negotiations as well as the driving forces and different aims of political and industrial players on the national and the European level.
Die norwegische Leichtmetallindustrie unter deutscher Besatzung — This light metal project developed into the largest economic project in occupied Norway. A case study of the activities of the Norwegian enterprises, investors and industrialists who were involved in the light metal project sheds new light on the economic relations between German and Norwegian actors in occupied Norway. Dominant assumptions of the German occupational regime as a hegemonic force of exploitation, and the light metal project as a solely German initiative are put to question.
However, the analysis of the Norwegian actors in the light metal project reveals that Norwegian participants had a leeway of manoeuvre, which they sought to utilize. The activity of Norwegian enterprises, investors and industrialists was characterized not mainly by anxiety or adjustment, but was rather marked by close cooperation with the occupational forces.
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- The Clash: Talking.
- Mensch und Mathematik: Wittgenstein gegen Plato (German Edition).
The German occupation resulted in manifold business opportunities, und the urge for cooperation must be explained by competitive and commercial interests, and economic pragmatism rather than political and ideological motives. Tobias A. However, the HDI has also attracted a fair share of conceptual criticism.
We test how far they alter our picture of the relative living standard in the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and the Federal Republic of Germany. First, we replace the arithmetic mean by the geometric mean, which is said to solve the problem of perfect substitutability; second, we extend the HDI by an additional fourth dimension measuring economic and political freedom — an important, though neglected, dimension; and third, as the perhaps most crucial conceptual intervention, we develop weighting schemes for the partial indices that are theoretically backed by happiness economic research.
Thus, we challenge the common, but arbitrary fundamental assumption that all partial indices receive equal weights. Our results show that the HDI for Germany reacts very sensitively to conceptual interventions, making it difficult to use it for the intertemporal and international comparison of living standards. We also find that the proposed modified HDIs allow for a re-evaluation of the living standard in interwar Germany; and in contrast to what the reference estimations on the HDI for Germany say, there is a profound discontinuity between the Third Reich and post-war Germany in terms of living standards.
This article investigates one stage in the career of Dr. During the Weimar republic Voss was a respected association official and chartered accountant without a political background. Between spring and autumn he integrated himself fast and successfully into the Nazi regime. At the same time it reveals the difficult development of chartered accountancy as a profession in Germany around and attempts to professionalize the occupation by different individuals and organisations.
Guide Die Bedeutung Norwegens für die deutsche Kriegswirtschaft (German Edition)
This paper takes up new research approaches to the history of elites. Redaktion: hsk. ISSN: DE EN.
Berlin De Gruyter. Herausgeber d. Abhandlungen Ralf Ahrens and Astrid M. Eckert Industrial Policy in Western Europe since the s: Historical Varieties and Perspectives 23 Historical research on industrial policy has only recently begun to focus on the crisis-shaken decades of the s and s, demonstrating thebroadness of the topic as well as the need for further research. Martin Chick Industrial Policy in Britain since Changing Values, Assumptions and Mechanisms 35 This article examines the change in the fundamental assumptions underpinning industrial policy from the mids in Britain.
Ralf Ahrens Sectoral Subsidies in West German Industrial Policy: Programmatic Objectives and Pragmatic Applications from the s to the s 59 After the end of the postwar reconstruction boom, the decline of traditional large-scale industries and intensified international competition increased the demand for state aid in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Fabio Lavista Structural Policies, regional Development and industrial Specialization in Italy, — 83 The article analyses Italian regional developmental policies between the s and s. Laurent Warlouzet When Germany Accepted a European Industrial Policy: Managing the Decline of Steel from to From to , an ambitious European industrial policy was implemented by the European Economic Community for the first and only time in its history. The Western European Fibre Industry in the s and s Due to the decline of the Western European textile industry in the s and international economic turbulences in the s, the chemical fibre industry in Western Europe ran into trouble.
This work may be copied and redistributed for non-commercial, educational purposes, if permission is granted by the author and usage right holders. For permission please contact hsk. Engelhard ed. For the willingness of the judiciary to go along with these measures, see Angermund, Deutsche Richterschaft. Quoted in Noakes ed. Kautsky, Teufel , quoted in Noakes ed. Burleigh, Death , ; Klee ed.
The numbers killed in all these cases remains uncertain, and available estimates vary wildly. Lewy, The Nazi Persecution , - Detlev J. Gerwin Udke ed. Benedikt Burkard and Friederike Valet eds. John S. Heinrich Hermelink ed. William D. Oron J. Der nationalsozialistische Film und sein Publikum Berlin, Etlin ed. Shirer, Berlin Diary , The movie he was referring to was China Seas , released in the USA in , dubbed into German, as foreign-language films always were, and given a new title. Bergmeier and Rainer E. The attempts of Shirakawa and Fred K. Michael H. I am grateful to Chris Clark for the translation.
Italics in original.
Unbequeme Gedanken über eine Supermacht
Hans-Walter Schmuhl ed. The book was later made into a Hollywood movie starring Brad Pitt. Harrer eventually died in Robert N. Jahrhunderts , 15 , English version of extracts from the 9 August manifesto in Noakes ed. For documents of the resistance, see Hans-Adolf Jacobsen ed.
Beate Ruhm von Oppen ed. Quoted in Manoschek ed. E, 7 August The widely repeated story that he was shot by the Gestapo has no basis in truth; for his earlier life, real and imagined, see Evans, The Third Reich in Power , , , , , , Hiller et al. Solmitz, Tagebuch , 2 February , 27 February , 1, 9 April Rusinek ed. See also the classic account by Hugh R. The skeletons of both men were discovered during building work in and identified by their dental records.
Steur, Theodor Dannecker , , pointing out that she would hardly have done this had her husband not killed himself. Rumours that he survived were thus unfounded. Breloer ed.
Solmitz, Tagebuch , 1, 30 April , 1, 5 May , 1, 8 May Perry Biddiscombe, Werwolf! Robert G. Kater, Doctors under Hitler , ; Steven P. Horace W. Konrad H. Jarausch, After Hitler , Eric A. Notes Chapter 1. William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary London,  , - 8. Evans, The Third Reich in Power , - 15, - 3, - Broszat, Nationalsozialistische Polenpolitik , - 2. Klukowski, Diary , Broszat, Nationalsozialistische Polenpolitik , Rossino, Hitler Strikes Poland , Quoted in Krausnick, Hitlers Einsatzgruppen , n.
Quoted in Krausnick, Hitlers Einsatzgruppen , Klukowski, Diary , 88; also - 21 14 October Klukowski, Diary , 29 January Madajczyk, Die Okkupationspolitik , - Klukowski, Diary , 85 25 April Quoted in Browning, The Origins , Klukowski, Diary , 30, 45 - 8. Aly and Heim, Architects , - 9; Longerich, Politik , - Shirer, Berlin Diary , - 8. Evans, The Third Reich in Power , - Sierakowiak, The Diary , 71 15 December Czerniakow, The Warsaw Diary , 17 May Ringelblum, Notes , Klukowski, Diary , 3 September Kaplan, Scroll , - 2 14 February Szarota, Warschau , 46; Ringelblum, Notes , Maschmann, Account Rendered , 81 - 2.
Evans, The Third Reich in Power , - 8, - 2. Klemperer, I Shall Bear Witness , - Evans, The Third Reich in Power , - 7. Klukowski, Diary , 76 18 February Quoted in Friedlander, The Origins , Friedlander, The Origins , 65 - 6; Burleigh, Death , - Friedlander, The Origins , 86 - Schmuhl, Rassenhygiene , - 3, - Burleigh, Death , - Shirer, Berlin Diary , , Excellent analysis in Longerich, Politik , Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich , Chapter 2. Shirer, Berlin Diary , 9 November Moorhouse, Killing Hitler , Meier-Welcker, Aufzeichnungen , 54 21 March Roy Jenkins, Churchill London, , Shirer, Berlin Diary , 20 May Weinberg, A World at Arms , Bock, Zwischen Pflicht und Verweigerung , 24 February Jackson, The Fall of France , quote on Bock, Zwischen Pflicht und Verweigerung , 2 June Jackson, The Fall of France , Meier-Welcker, Aufzeichnungen , 74 12 June Shirer, Berlin Diary , 21 June, Frieser, Blitzkrieg-Legende , Shirer, Berlin Diary , May Charles S.
Shirer, Berlin Diary , , July Walb, Ich, die Alte , 17 June Overy, The Battle London, , Tooze, The Wages of Destruction , , Shirer, Berlin Diary , 17 August The original expression was Horridoh!